Sunday, May 31, 2020

Application Of Thermal Insulation In Buildings In Malaysia - Free Essay Example

1.2 Problem Statement Energy saving in buildings has become a question of crucial importance in many countries. At the same time, the requirements for satisfactory indoor climate with low electricity consumption have increased which prompt the supply and demand for energy efficient homes. The battle against global warming shall start from home insulation to reduce green house gas emission. In developed countries, government has even allowed tax credit to house owners for costs incurred in carrying out home insulation works which meets the urgent need in the fight against global warming. In Malaysia, the common answer from the public in general to make a house or office cool is probably by switching on the air conditioning. The roof of most houses is constructed using timber roof trusses and concrete roof tiles in Malaysia. The heat gained through the roof which convents through the ceiling has increased the indoor heat to a level that most house owners will not feel comfortable without the use of air cond itioners. The impact that roofs have on energy is often overlooked, the impact of which can be significant. In homes, air conditioners make up 23% of energy consumption. Alternatively we can achieve the dream cool and comfort living or working environment despite in a very hot sunny day with the help of install the thermal insulation then will reduce the dependence on air conditioners to cool the home or office. This means insulating a home could potentially save thousands of ringgit in electricity bills. Install the thermal insulation in the wall or roof will increasing the cost of the building but the price tag on insulation is considered small when compared with the benefits including monthly savings in electricity bills throughout the lifespan of the house, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved comfort and living standards and a huge contribution to the local economic growth, as the insulation material is manufactured locally. 1.3 Aim The researchers aim for conducting this research is to review the uses and identify the importance of thermal insulation. Besides that, to find out whether application of thermal insulation to the buildings is suitable to be adopted into construction industry in Malaysia. 1.4 Objectives To review the concepts and uses of thermal insulation. To assess the importance or advantages of thermal insulation in Malaysia. To investigate the applicability of thermal insulation amongst the buildings in Malaysia. 1.5 Hypothesis Application of thermal insulation into the buildings would increase the energy saving in buildings and decrease in emission to environmental. 1.6 Background Governments all over the world are beginning to realize the importance of reducing dependence on energy imports as fuel reserves becomes scarcer and supplies are concentrated on a few politically unstable countries. The building sector is probably the most effective and easiest way to start reducing energy consumption. Reduction in energy demand can be most effective due to applying thermal insulation to the buildings. Thermal insulation is the method of preventing heat from escaping a container or from entering the container. In other words, thermal insulation can keep an enclosed area such as a building warm, or it can keep the inside of a container cold. Depending on the climate, we spend more or less energy on heating or cooling, but we will spend more energy on cooling the room by switch on the air conditioning in Malaysia. There have a main reason for using thermal insulation for reduction of heat coming in, without too much loss of light due to the hot climate in Malaysia. So, the demand of energy can be significantly reduced by install a thermal insulation into the wall or roof of those buildings. Thermal insulation has been introduced to reduce the demand of energy result in electric consumption costs up to 40% and the countrys energy resources. This allows savings on the cost of the air-conditioning, because a smaller unit is needed, and on the running cost of the air conditioning. It also indeed creates a more comfortable living and working atmosphere. Besides that, most of the people will switch on the air conditioning to keep the comfort in the room or working place in Malaysia. But, the air conditioners will release a haloalkanes which are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of chlorine, fluorine and carbon, called Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC). The CFC will among the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that contribute to future global warming. So, apply thermal insulation to the buildings will reduce using the air conditioning naturally will reduce the emission to the environmental also. 1.7 Scope of Study The research project has provided the idea and functions of thermal insulation to the buildings make a preliminary of understanding to it. Besides that, the advantages or importances that apply the thermal insulation to the buildings in Malaysia also fall within the scopes of this research project. In this study, I have studied into few buildings in Malaysia which have installed the thermal insulation such as Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Zero Energy Office (ZEO) building at Bandar Baru Bangi and Low Energy Office (LEO) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Malaysia at Putrajaya. Based on these buildings, I will study the benefits that obtain from the buildings which have applied thermal insulation to the wall and roof in this research project. In addition, I will inquire into the applicability of thermal insulation in the buildings in Malaysia. 1.8 Research Methodology For the primary source, questionnaires were prepared as a ground for the main survey which relates to the reason of construction firms attempt to apply thermal insulation to the buildings in Malaysia. The questionnaires were then distributed to the construction firms which are be responsible for à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Zero Energy Office (ZEO) building project and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Low Energy Office (LEO) Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Malaysia through e-mail. For this purpose of survey, mailing list was obtained for website which has listing the name, address and the title of principal officer for each firm listed. That company was chosen and sent a set of questionnaire while those company which have not related into the projects will be randomly chosen for obtain the opinion on the applicability of apply thermal insulation in the buildings in Malaysia. For secondary sources, a comprehensive review of the relevant literature including a computer assisted search, textbook, journals, articles and so on, will be taken to develop an understanding of concept and uses of thermal insulation. Besides that, the importance or advantages of thermal insulation in Malaysia also will be assessed by computer assisted search. 1.9 Proposed structure of the dissertation Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Review concept and uses of thermal insulation. 2.2 Review importance to apply thermal insulation into a building. 2.3 Investigation of applicability of thermal insulation into the buildings in Malaysia. Chapter 3: Research design and methodology. Chapter 4: Analysis of the result and discussion. Chapter 5: Conclusion. References. 1.10 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" References Chin Teck, Soh. September 30, 2009. Lack Of Insulation In Malaysian Buildings Key Cause Of High Energy Bills. Viewed on: December 23, 2009. Available on: www.HYPERLINK Chin Teck, Soh. September 30, 2009. Save Energy Fight Global Warming. Viewed on: December 23, 2009. Available on: Allergy.J, February 19, 1999. ChlorofluorocarbonHYPERLINK HYPERLINK Hhydrofluoroalkane formulations. Viewed on: December 24, 2009. Available on: Chin Teck, Soh. September 30, 2009. Why Insulate?. Viewed on: December 25, 2009. Available on: 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Review the concepts and uses of thermal insulation 2.1.1 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Concept of thermal insulation Thermal insulation has been defined as a material or combination of materials which slow down the flow of heat, reduce some sound transmission or slow down the spread of fire when buildings are in fire.(Anish, 2003) The thermal insulation materials can be suited to any size, shape or surface and the variety of finishes to be used in order to protect the thermal insulation from mechanical and environmental damage as well as to enhance appearance of buildings.(Anish, 2003) Thermal insulation can be mentioned either to materials used to lower the rate of heat transfer, or the means and processes used to lower heat transfer. Thermal insulation will transfer heat energy and the hHYPERLINK energy would be transferred by three methods, which are convection, conduction and radiation. Convection When the heat is flow whether by forced or natural, within a fluid and the fluid is a substance that may be either a gas or a liquid, this process is called convection.(Zhang, et al. 2005) Convection will then gravitationally-induced heat transport, driven by the expansion of a fluid on heating then hot expanded fluid has lower density, so will rise to the top of colder, and therefore denser, fluid.(Fowler, 2008) For example, when air to be heated, then it will expands and rise. However, if the air movement is established mechanically by a floor register, fan, or wind, then it will be called as a forced convection. Conduction Conduction is direct heat flow or conducted from a material especially a solid.(Zhang, et al. 2005) When different parts of an isolated solid are at different temperatures, the heat will flow from the hot places to the cold places until eventually all is at the same temperature.(Fowler, 2008) Conduction and convection have same uses which are functions of the roughness of surfaces, air movement and the temperature difference between the air and surface. The increasing of heat energy can flow through materials and from one material to another.(Kurtus, 2006) Radiation Radiation is the transmission of energy through space by means of electromagnetic waves.(Zhang, et al. 2005) This is clearly in the way the sun warms the surface of the earth, which involves the heat transfer through electromagnetic waves and absorption of the heat energy by a surface. Heat from the sun is reaches human skin as radiation, much of it can clearly be seen or evident light, the rest similar electromagnetic waves but at wavelengths human eyes are not sensitive to it. All bodies not at sheer zero temperature radiate, at room temperature the radiation is in the infrared, wavelengths longer than those of the visible spectrum. (Fowler, 2008) Source: isover Then, the types of thermal insulation are indicates the composition and internal structure of a building and the types of thermal insulation are normally been subdivided into three groups, which are fibrous insulation, cellular insulation and granular insulation.(Muhammad Anis-ur-Rehman, et al. 1999) Fibrous Insulation Fibrous insulation is composing of air finely divided into interstices by small diameter fibers. The fibers may be parallel or perpendicular to the surface being insulated and they may separate or bonded together. That is usually chemically or mechanically bonded and formed into boards, blanket or hollow cylinders. (Muhammad Anis-ur-Rehman, et al. 1999) Cellular Insulation Cellular insulation is composed of air or some other gas contained within foam of stable small bubbles and formed into boards, blankets, or hollow cylinders. The cellular material may be glass or foamed plastic such as polystyrene, polyurethane and elastomeric. (Muhammad Anis-ur-Rehman, et al. 1999) Granular Insulation Granular insulation is composed of air or some other gas in the interstices between small granules and formed into blocks, boards, or hollow cylinders. This type may be produce as loose pourable material or combined with a binder and fibers to make a rigid insulation. (Muhammad Anis-ur-Rehman, et al. 1999) Furthermore, thermal insulation is available in a variety of forms and it is usually rated in terms of thermal resistance which is R-value, which indicates the resistance of material to heat flow. The higher its resistance is, the greater the insulating effectiveness is. Of course, the thermal insulation property depends on the type of material, its thickness, and its density. The combined form and type of insulation will determine the proper method of insulation. There are many forms of thermal insulation are designed to deliver a sustained level of thermal resistance, such as Traditional Batt Insulation or Alternatives, Blown-In Cellulose Insulation, Rigid Board Insulation, Spray Foam Insulation and SIPs/ICFs. Traditional Batt Insulation or Alternatives Batt or Blanket Insulation is the most common and least effective insulation used in the states nowadays. It has an approximate rating of R-3 per inch. Technically the R rating is even lower because typical batts are so loose that they allow air to penetrate them and cool them down. It is possible to use batts effectively in energy efficient buildings but the installation is labor intensive. One slightly greener alternative to batts would be to use batts or rolls made of natural fibers such as Bonded Logics insulation made from recycled denim jeans.[8] These types of insulation typically have a slightly higher R rating and do not harm the indoor air quality since they are made of natural materials. The trade off is that they are pricey and still do not effectively seal air gaps without extra labor and supervision. (Ludeman, 2008) Blown-In Cellulose Insulation Loose-Fill Insulation is an option that can be economic friendly because the Cellulose is a type of blown-in or loose-fill insulation that is made from recycled newspapers. There pros and cons but the bottom line is that it will not provide much better R- value than batt insulation and typically it will cost more to have installed. The best applications seem to be for attics that are not well insulated because cellulose can be quickly and efficiently blow over an attic floor to dramatically and safely increase the insulation between the home and the hot attic space. (Ludeman, 2008) Rigid Board Insulation Rigid Board Insulation can contain some of the highest R-values with some Polyurethane sheets reaching R-8 per inch. Since the insulation comes in the form of rigid boards it is popular as roof and wall coverings attached to the exterior of the framing of a new building. Attaching to the exterior of the framing will improve the strength of the structure while also creating an insulated break or thermal barrier between the wood studs and the exterior sheathing or siding. This can greatly reduce the heat loss transferred from the inside of the building though the wood studs and to the exterior. There are also green versions of rigid board that are normally classified as polystyrene rigid insulation. This type may contain some recycled materials and will not off-gas like some of the other sheet products might. Besides that, rigid board insulation is also can find boards that are laminated or strengthened to act as both the buildings sheathing and insulation. Since sheathing of some type is necessary, this does not eliminate a step but can greatly improve the building envelope without additional labor. (Ludeman, 2008) Spray Foam Insulation Spray-Foam Insulation is probably the most effective type of insulation for traditional, stick-framed buildings available nowadays. The product is in the form of a liquid that is sprayed on and quickly expands to 100 times its size. It can achieve R-values of R-9 per inch but most importantly, it automatically creates an almost perfect air seal upon expanding. While the product is costly, it is effective and reduces a lot of manual caulking and sealing that would be necessary with other types of insulations. The most popular forms are petroleum based but there are also green options such as BioBased Insulation that is composed of 96% bio-content (soy-beans). (Ludeman, 2008) Structurally Insulated Panels (SIPs) / ICFs Structurally Insulated Panels are arguably the best way to achieve a tightly sealed and well insulated building. They are basically two sheets of OSB with spray foam insulation sandwiched between them. They are both structural as well as insulating so they eliminate the need for traditional framing and can streamline the construction of a building is assembled properly. All seams are sealed and there is no thermal bridge from studs. The only downfall is many contractors are unfamiliar with them and they can be quite pricey. Many of the green builders are using Structurally Insulated Panels because there are vehemently opposed to stick building as they view it an obsolete building practice. (Ludeman, 2008) Therefore, apply the thermal insulation for buildings will prevents or reduces heat from escaping a building or from entering a building. Thermal insulation can keep an enclosed area such as a building or a room warm for the cold climate countries like United Kingdom, Poland, New Zealand and so on; or it can keep the inside of a building or a room cold for the tropical climate countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and so on. So, the thermal insulators are applied and functions to minimize that heat energy transfer from the buildings. In thermal insulation, the R-value is an indication of how well for a material insulates for the buildings. R-value The R-value is the total thermal resistance (RT) for any building elements, including the surface thermal resistances of the air on either side of the building elements. The conductivity of bulk insulation materials will change with the temperature of the material. (Williamson, 2007) It is significant to realize that the boundary conditions and other factors used in the calculation of the R-values, which will cause the R-value different. The total thermal resistance of a flat for building element consisting of layers perpendicular to the heat flow is calculated using the expression: RT = Rsi + R1 + R2 + . . . . . + Rn + Rse Rsi is the internal surface resistance; R1, R2, .Rn are the thermal resistances of each layer, including bridged layers; Rse is the external surface resistance [Source: Dr Terry Williamson (2007)] An air space for the thermal resistance within a building element is depends on the valid emissivity of the space as well as the mean temperature and the difference in temperatures either side of the space.(Williamson, 2007) It follows therefore that the calculation of the R-value of a building element containing air spaces depends on the conditions assumed externally and internally.(Williamson, 2007) Thus, the flow of heat can be reduced by applying thermal insulation materials to the buildings and The rate of heat transfer is dependent on the physical properties of the material employed to do this. Insulation for the home has R-values usually in the range of R-10 up to R-30. The following is a listing of different materials with the English measurement of R-value: Material R-value Hardwood siding (1 in. thick) 0.91 Wood shingles (lapped) 0.87 Brick (4 in. thick) 4.00 Concrete block (filled cores) 1.93 Fiberglass batting (3.5 in. thick) 10.90 Fiberglass batting (6 in. thick) 18.80 Fiberglass board (1 in. thick) 4.35 Cellulose fiber (1 in. thick) 3.70 Flat glass (0.125 in thick) 0.89 Insulating glass (0.25 in space) 1.54 Air space (3.5 in. thick) 1.01 Free stagnant air layer 0.17 Drywall (0.5 in. thick) 0.45 Sheathing (0.5 in. thick) 1.32 [Source:  Hyperphysics Georgia State University] Another mathematical expression used in thermal quantification, and the most common reference used by the insulation industry, is U-value, or flow rate of heat through a building elements. U-value U-value is to be used for describe the amount of heat loss or also called as thermal transmittance, that occurs through an element of construction such as a wall or window. (Raynham, 1975) If an element of construction has a lower the U-value the less energy is lost and the better is its insulating characteristics.(Zimmermann Bertschinger, 2001) It has the same unit as thermal conductivity, except that since a U-value refers to a given construction, the thickness of which is taken into account, it has the unit W m-2 K-1. U-value is computed according to the formula: U=(Ri s+ Re s,+Rc a v+k1-l+k2-1+à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦)-l Ri s and, Re s are the thermal resistances of internal and external surfaces respectively; Rc a v is the sum of thermal resistances of any cavities; k1-l+k2-1+à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ are the thermal resistances of each material used. [Source: Mark Zimmerman Hans Bertschinger (2001)] Since the U-value is a measurement of heat flow, the lower the U-value, the more slowly does the material transfer heat in and out of the home. The U-value typically is used in expressing overall thermal conductance, since it is a measurement of the rate of heat flow through the complete heat barrier, from room air to outside air.(Anderson, 2006) The lower the U-value, the better is the insulating value. The U-value of a constructional element of buildings would decreases rapidly as the first few centimeters of thermal insulation are added.(Rouni, 2005) An even more increase in thermal insulation thickness does not always lead to an equally fast decrease in the U-value. The thicker the thermal insulation layer already is, the less the decrease in the U-value is by more adding thermal insulation.(Rouni, 2005) The following diagram shows the decrease in the U-value as the thickness of the insulation layer increases. [Source: GK Rouni (2005)] Temperature and temperature variations govern much of our daily lives, the environmental factors such as temperature, radiation, air motion, and humidity, as well as on personal factors such as activity levels, clothing selection and expectation, all of those factors are contribute to the state of thermal comfort.(Bynum, 2000) Thermal comfort is a term given the varying nature of the human condition, has been described as a feeling of well-being, an absence of discomfort, or a state of mind that is satisfied with the thermal environment. (McDowall, 2007) 2.1.2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Uses of thermal insulation The human beings have demonstrated that we are need for the protection from the elements of construction and although many of these factors are continuously in flux, but the proper use of thermal insulation, placement of vapor barriers, and understanding of heat transfer will contribute to providing an environment conducive to thermal comfort within the buildings to the human.(Bynum, 2000) Thermal insulation is the better way to protect anything against the heat because the material use for this is really heat absorbing material. Thermal insulation is to be used to perform many of the functions and the primary purpose of thermal insulation is to reduce heat loss or heat gain through the exterior assemblies of a building in order to achieve energy conservation.(Stettler, 2009) Basically thermal insulations reduce the rate of heat transfer because there are special type of thermal insulation material which converts the heat energy to some other form by conduction, convention and radiation as mentioned as foresaid. [Source: exergia] As the drawing shows that the houses lose heat through walls, windows, doors, floors, roofs and ventilation.  Thermal insulation, quality double-glazed windows and controlled ventilation can reduce the heat losses by as much as 50%, thus reducing the heating costs in the cold climate.(Weber, 2006) However, an energy efficient home featuring thermal insulation, shading, brightly colored external surfaces and controlled ventilation also greatly enhance the thermal comfort by offering protection from the heat and radiation of the sun. (Weber, 2006)  This also helps to drastically reduce the electrical bills that pay to run air conditioners in tropical climate. Besides that, apply thermal insulation for buildings will protect the environment through the reduction of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and greenhouse gases. (Stettler, 2009) The greenhouse effect to a great level decides the climate on earth. Growth in emissions of greenhouse gases related with human activities menaces the climate balance. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are the main greenhouse gas which are emitted due to air-conditioners are function to provide cool or hot air and increasing thermal comfort of buildings, there have led to rapid growth in the amount of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the a atmosphere. Heating, air conditioning and refrigeration are the causes that result in this growth. If no action is taken at all, the EU Member States said that greenhouse gas emissions could be expected to further increase by 17% between 1990 and 2010, while the target set by the Kyoto Protocol for the period is to reduce the emissions by 8%. The reasonable level of expenditure on insulation is directly related to the amount of the heat loss or heat gain, and to the electricity of air-conditioning required to produce an appreciable return in terms of electricity saving. Fortunately, it is possible to reduce energy consumption and the associated Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions in heating and air conditioning by one third by using more or better insulation for the buildings.(Roberts, et al. 1981) Furthermore, the thermal insulation also can be used in buildings in order to prevent or reduce condensation on surfaces.(Raynham 1973) If wants to prevent condensation on the surface of walls, it is necessary to have adequate ventilation and sufficient insulation and heat input. It is also necessary to consider the question of whether condensation is likely to occur within a structure. Since most structures experience a falling dew point especially where insulating internal linings are provided, as well as temperature gradient from inside to out, it is possible for the temperature on the cold side of the insulation to fall below the dew point, causing interstitial condensation.(Raynham 1973) This can be controlled by providing water vapour barriers on the warm side of the insulation. This may take the form of polythene film or certain types of paint treatment, such as chlorinated rubber on the insulated lining. In some situations such as factory roofs and some timber flat roofs, ventilation is provided above the insulation to remove any water vapour that has penetrated that far.(Raynham 1973) Thermal insulation also can use to prevent or reduce damage to buildings when occur fire in the buildings or near the buildings.(Raynham 1973) When fire breaks out in a compartment the contents of the whole room are heated up, leading to accumulation of flammable gas. Eventually a point is reached when these gases, together with the materials evolving them, suddenly kindle and thus involve the whole room in fire. Tests done many years ago at the Fire Research Station (Raynham 1973) investigated the factors leading to a short, and therefore dangerous, flashover time. Tests involving fires in domestic sized rooms with insulating board and hardboard wall linings showed that flashover occurred at between 8.5 and 12min. Two further tests made with a noncombustible sprayed insulating lining gave flashover times of 8 and 4.5 min, thus suggesting that the thermal insulating characteristics of a lining are probably more significant from a fire development point of view than its combustibility. If this is true to any extent, significantly improved standards of thermal insulation, such as we are about to adopt in this country, are almost certain to accentuate the fire risk, especially in dwellings. The thermal insulation also can be installed in the mechanical system in commercial buildings and industrial processes.(Avtivity, 2008) In buildings such as shopping centers, schools, hospitals, and hotels, mechanical insulations are installed to improve the energy consumption of the cooling and heating systems for buildings, domestic hot and cold water supply, and refrigerated systems including ducts and housings. However, for industrial facilities such as power plants, refineries, and paper mills, mechanical thermal insulations are installed to control heat gain or heat loss on process piping and equipment, steam and condensate distribution systems, boilers, smoke stacks, bag houses and precipitators, and storage tanks.(Avtivity, 2008) Thermal insulation for mechanical system is to dominate the temperatures of the surface for personnel and equipment protection. That is one of the most effective mediums of protecting workers from second and third degree burns resulting from skin contact for more than 5 seconds with surfaces of hot piping and equipment operating at temperatures above 136.4 °F.(Avtivity, 2008) Thermal insulation will function to reduces the surface temperature of piping or equipment into a safer level as required by OSHA, resulting in increased worker safety and the avoidance of worker downtime due to injury.(Avtivity, 2008) Besides, thermal insulation also will control the temperature of commercial and industrial processes when installed in the mechanical system.(Avtivity, 2008) Thermal insulation can help maintain process temperature to a pre-determined value or within a predetermined range by reducing heat loss or gain. The insulation thickness must be sufficient to limit the heat transfer in a dynamic system or limit the temperature change, with time, in a static system.(Avtivity, 2008) The need to provide time for owners to take remedial action in emergency situations in the event of loss of electrical power, or heat sources is a major reason for this action in a static system. At last but not least, installed the thermal insulation in the mechanical system will reduce noise from mechanical systems.(Avtivity, 2008) Insulation materials can be used in the design of an assembly having a high sound attenuation or sound resistance. The sound transmission loss when the thermal insulation to be installed between the source and the surrounding area.(Avtivity, 2008) So, thermal insulation not only can be used for building but also for the mechanical system in commercial buildings and industrial processes in order to achieve different effects. 2.2 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The importance or advantages of thermal insulation in Malaysia 2.2.1 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Advantages of thermal insulation in Malaysia Governments all over the world are beginning to recognize the significance of reducing dependence on energy imports as fuel reserves becomes scarcer and supplies are focused on a few politically unstable countries. In the Malaysian context, the energy imports are expected to equal exports by 2014 as energy demand is expected to triple by 2020, as predicted by NIRAS in their Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Component, Energy Outlook report.[MIMG à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Why Insulate (2007)] Therefore, Malaysia Government has started to think over the methods on order to resolve that problem. Firstly, the energy efficiency measures are tops the agenda which need to be emphasize by government because it will directly responsible for energy conservation efforts in Malaysia. It will no longer be enough to talk about energy saving plans but is the immediate steps must be taken to make energy efficiency requirements as part of the countrys by-law implementation.[MIMG à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Why Insulate (2007)] The latent for profitable energy savings is immense and remains largely untapped. The readily suitable, affordable and well proven technologies for energy efficiency solutions for now are application of thermal insulation in building envelopes.[MIMG à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Why Insulate (2007)] This is because the thermal insulation will provides the occasion for the energy savings that is sustainable in the long term. 2.2.1 Energy Saving The most effective and easiest way to start reducing energy consumption probably is the construction sector. The following chart show that the electricity consumption by each sector. Reduction in energy demand can be most effective when big consumption of energy users such as commercial buildings and factories are dealt with.[MIMG à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Why Insulate (2007)] Malaysia is a tropical climate country so that the general public to make a building such as house, shop or office cool is probably by switching on the air conditioners. Almost every people who are living in the tropical climate counties and all of them rely on air conditioners to cool the buildings during a hot day and most of the offices are switch on the air conditioners once the offices are in use. So, if want to achieve a cool and comfort living or working environment despite in a very hot sunny day can with the help of apply thermal insulation in buildings in order to reduce the dependence on use of electricity to run the air conditioners to the homes or offices. Some of the commercial buildings in Malaysia such as GEO building, LEO building, ZEO building and so on, have certified that use of thermal insulation will reduce the energy consumption. The following chart shows that the energy savings for LEO building after use of thermal insulation. The roof of the LEO building is insulated with 100 mm of thermal insulation and the roof surface is protected by a second canopy roof, which avoids direct solar radiation onto the roof.(Tang, et al. 2006) Along the perimeter of the roof, green landscaping will provides shading and improves the aesthetics of the roof areas, which can be used for various functions.(Tang, et al. 2006) Therefore, the LEO building can achieve a cool and comfort working environment despite in sunny days but consume less electricity to run the air conditioners to the office. [Source: Aniza Abdul Aziz et al. (2007)] In the year 2006 report done by the Ministry it was found that LEO building has the energy index of 110 compared to a typical building of the same floor area which is 275, a savings of RM0.6 million per year. LEO building is expected to achieve the payback of the construction cost in 8 years period with the savings made from less electricity consumption. (Mohamed, 2008) However, the ZEO building adopted high insulation in facade and roof and installing spectrally selective glazing or double-glazing on all of the windows so that the building can reduce the heat gain from outside of the building. (Aziz, et al. 2007) Optimal orientation of building, composite walls and roofs with thermal insulation, advanced fenestration systems with spectrally selective glazing, innovative design of shading systems, design of building for maximum use of daylight, modification of the external environment, computer modeling of building and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) are the characteristics taken into consideration to save energy consumption of the building. (Aziz, et al. 2007) The LEO building and ZEO building have verified that apply the thermal insulation in the walls and roofs of buildings will reduce energy consumption. The thermal insulation will maintain the temperature in the buildings and save a large amount of energy consumption in order save the money due to less use of electricity, as buildings are more energy efficient. 2.2.2 Money saving The provision of higher standards of thermal insulation is frequently a matter of economics by spending money on installation of thermal insulation to save money by reduced heat loss or heat gain thereafter. The financial return for a given expenditure is clearly greater if the building such as a house is occupied and the house is cooling by air-condition continuously, than if the building such as an office or shop is only occupied for eight hours a day, five days a week.(Raynham, 1975) Around 60% to 70% of heat will gained in a house or office comes through the ceiling so that only the space under the roof of a house or office would need to be insulated as in Malaysia. The Insulation Council of Australia and New Zealand Director Ray Thompson, also explained that insulation does this by stopping the heat from coming through the roof or ceiling space and going into the area which has ocupied.(Barakat Chamberlin, Inc. et al. 2005) According to Mr. Soh Chin Teck, the Malaysian Insulation Manufacturers Group (MIMG) Chairman, said that air conditioners make up 23% of energy consumption in most of the homes and 57% of energy consumption in most of the offices in Malaysia.(Barakat Chamberlin, Inc. et al. 2005) This means that installation of thermal insulation a Malaysian buildings could potentially save thousands of ringgit in electricity bills and that all sounds fine and well for the owners. Thus, the installation of thermal insulation will reduce the use of electricity to run the air-conditioners in order to save electricity fees and the house or office can always accepting that adequate comfort levels have be achieved throughout the period of occupancy. According to McKinsey / Vattenhall Climate Map, usage of air conditioners in the worlds largest economies such as the United State, China and India will  triple before 2030 result in increasing the use of electricity and the electricity fees. Thus, if want to control and reduce  the use of air conditioning in the countries which are tropical and hot climate, it is crucial to insulate the buildings better. This is especially important for some fast developing countries such as Malaysia, India, China and other Asian regions. This is because there are many new buildings being built. Although installation of thermal insulation will increase the cost of construction but the price of installation of thermal insulation is considered small when that is compared with the benefits after install the thermal insulation.(Barakat Chamberlin, Inc. et al. 2005) Those are monthly savings in electricity bills throughout the lifespan of the house and improved the comfort and living standards for the people. An energy analysis reveals that the total energy consumption of the LEO Building amounts to 2.218 MWh/year, compared to 5.290 MWh/year if it had been designed and built without the thermal insulation. The following table shows that the calculation of cost saving, this results in an annual energy cost saving of RM 605,000. Cost Saving Calculation Energy Cost [RM/ year] Description Cooling Energy Electrical Energy Total Conventional design BEI=275 kWh/m2 478,000 620,000 1,099,000 LEO Building BEI=114 kWh/m2 (actual energy bills) 156,000 338,000 493,000 Saving 322,000 282,000 606,000 Saving [%] 67.4 45.5 55.1 [Source: Energy Performance of LEO Building] Besides that, thermal insulating material is much cost effective because once there installed there demand very less maintenance and there are not ongoing expenses of these materials. For example, if the temperature of a building rises to certain level, then the owner needs to use various temperatures lowering things such as air-conditioners which will use more energy and hence increasing the expense of the owner on the ongoing bases.  So, thermal insulation will help the owners save the ongoing expenses to lower down the temperature of the buildings. In addition, installation of thermal insulation will save energy and resources led to minimize the emission of toxic substances throughout its life cycle.(Fong, 2005) This in turn will have a positive and good impact in reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and air pollution for the world. 2.2.3 Pollution reduction Although global warming is a worldwide effect which is caused by carbon dioxide emissions but Malaysia cannot ignore its responsibility to help save the environment. Thus, the energy savings from installation of thermal insulation is good news for the environment.(Anish, 2003) Thermal insulation to the buildings will reducing the energy needed to cool homes and commercial buildings result in the thermal insulation prevents carbon dioxide emissions which have contribute to global climate change. According to CT Soh (2008), installation of thermal insulation will bring down energy consumption by over 3,300 gigawatts per hour (GWh) and reduce carbon dioxide emission of over 2.5 million pounds.(Anish, 2003) Besides, Malaysia currently produces 3.7 pounds per capita of carbon dioxide every year, beating even the largest and most populous nation of world, China, which emits 2.2 pounds a year.(Anish, 2003) Therefore, it is importance to take immediate steps to inculcate consciousness on the benefits for installation of thermal insulation among Malaysians. Other air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, are also avoided. Energy use by the insulation industry emits 4.74 billion pounds of carbon dioxide during insulation production of one year. However, the installation of thermal insulation has produced in that same year avoids twelve times that amount, which is about 57 billion pounds. (Anish, 2003) These energy savings would prevent substantial amounts of carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution as well. Evidently, installation of thermal insulation has been great benefits in terms of energy savings, money savings, and pollution reduction for the Malaysia and for individual consumers. Thus, installation of thermal insulation should be considered a key resource for buildings regardless for residential buildings, commercial buildings and factories, in the cause to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and improve the environment. 2.3 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Summary Thermal insulation is a materials or combination materials which can be used as many functions for buildings, however thermal insulation most to be used to reduce heat transfer from come out a building or from go in a building through convection, conduction and radiation. The thermal insulation is divided into fibrous insulation, cellular insulation and granular insulation. Besides, there are many forms of thermal insulation such as Traditional Batt Insulation or Alternatives, Blown-In Cellulose Insulation, Rigid Board Insulation and etc. and each form of thermal insulation have their own properties. Then, the R-value and U-value are use to indicate how well for a thermal insulation material insulates for the buildings. Thermal insulation not only can use for to reduce heat loss or heat gain through the exterior assemblies of a building in order to achieve energy conservation, but also to reduce the emissions of environment. Besides that, prevent or reduce condensation on surfaces an d slow down the spread of fire also are the functions of thermal insulation for buildings. However, thermal insulation also can be installed in the mechanical system in commercial buildings and industrial processes in order to improve the energy consumption of buildings, dominate the temperatures of the surface for personnel and equipment protection, control the temperature of commercial and industrial processes and reduce sound and noise transmission from mechanical system. In Malaysia, thermal insulation is seldom to apply for buildings but also found that some commercial buildings such as LEO buildings, ZEO buildings, GEO buildings and etc, which have install thermal insulation for these buildings to achieve energy saving, money saving and pollution reduction for individual and also the environment.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Waterboarding is Torture Essay - 1130 Words

A patrol team from the 1st Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division is responsible for searching suspected insurgent hideouts, capturing enemy combatants and bringing them in for questioning. On July 28th, 2011 the patrol team was in the city of Bagdad, Iraq when a roadside bomb takes out the first two vehicles in the convoy killing four soldiers. They immediately pull to the side of the road and take cover as the rest of the convoy comes under small arms fire. A long fight pursues, but the patrol team is able to disarm the insurgents and take them captive. The next day, back at camp, the platoon leader puts several soldiers from the patrol team in charge of interrogating one of the suspects. He explains the technique he wants used to obtain this†¦show more content†¦A rag is placed over their face to simulate darkness. Water is then poured over the rag, producing a lack of oxygen and inducing fear that makes the individual believe that they are going to die by drowning. In the event the person refuses to give up any information, they may be coerced to cooperate by using this extreme interrogation technique. In the weekly journal â€Å"Time U.S.†, the article â€Å"Waterboarding: A Mental and Physical Trauma† highlights the after-effects by people who have endured the traumatic experience of waterboarding. This is an utterly terrifying event, says Allen Keller, the director of the Bellevue/New York University School of Medicine Program for Survivors of Torture. Psychologically this can result in significant long-term post-traumatic stress, and produce anxiety and depression.† (Waterboarding: A Mental As Well As Physical Trauma - TIME.† N.p., n.d.) Allen Keller goes on to essentially refute claims that a subject intuitively understands that there is no real jeopardy, just discomfort by saying that there is a significant difference between waterboarding a subject during a training event and actual practice. In training, a student trusts that they will not be hurt. In contrast, a detainee has no such guarantee; therefore, the fear is a heightened reality. Many would believe that torture is considered an act that would only cause physical pain. However, physical punishment alone does notShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essay On Waterboarding1071 Words   |  5 Pagesrecent waterboarding of prisoners of war, detainees and enemy combatants by the United States government has garnered much attention and debate. Some of main topics in this on-going debate include: Is waterboarding torture? Is it legal? Is it moral? What are the repercussions and possible reciprocal action of our enemies because of this waterboarding? This paper does not provide an argument for or against water boarding in and of itself but lays out a defense for the legality of waterboarding as wasRead MorePersuasive Essay On Torture929 Words   |  4 Pages The practice of torture by United States officials has become one of the most controversial elements of military history. The debate of its use in gathering intelligence has been particularly prevalent since the Bush administration. Most recently, a detailed and graphic scene of torture was presented in the movie Zero Dark Thirty. Proponents for the use of torture state that it is necessary for intelligence gathering and that ethics should be waved aside. Opponents argue that it is not becomingRead MoreUnited States Of Americ A Human Rights Defender For A Long Time Around The Global785 Words   |  4 Pages The United States of America had been known as a human rights defender for a long time around the global, but with the brutal torture actions performed by the Central Intelligence Agency, human rights that the America defended for so long seems to be questionable. Is it ok to violate international/ US laws as long as it benefits us? Moreover, does the so-called â€Å"enhanced† interrogation as effective as the CIA claims which helped gather valuable information from detainees that successfully help stoppedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Zero Dark Thirty 1122 Words   |  5 PagesThe film â€Å"Zero Dark Thirty† portrays the usage of torture being used to acquire information, which media enhances this torture to be favorable. The novel, Terrorism TV: Popular Entertainment in Post-9/11 America by Stacy Takacs, explores the â€Å"noble grunt† based upon how the information and the media merge together to allow viewers to think otherwise. â€Å"Zero Dark Thirty† directs a film based on a female actress who has her first experience for â€Å"the capture and killing of Osama bin Laden† through theRead MoreThe Moral Of Using Torture1108 Words   |  5 PagesThe Moral of Using Torture While torture is something some people would cringe at, others may approve of it as a useful tool. Is any government ever justified in using torture to gain information? Torture is defined as â€Å"the act of causing severe physical pain as a form of punishment or as a way to force someone to do or say something† (Merriam Webster 1). It has been used in various cultures throughout history such as China, Egypt, Iraq and many others, including modern America and VietnamRead MoreTorture Is Morally Justified?875 Words   |  4 Pages Torture interrogation has been used throughout history, more so recently at Guantanamo Bay with suspected terrorists. The big question is, are the answers that are obtained through torture interrogation reliable, and whether torture is morally justified? The purpose of this document is to explain what torture interrogation is, why it may be used, how it’s done, and how it affects reliability. To begin, torture is the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, both physically andRead MoreThe War On Terror Of Terrorism1384 Words   |  6 Pagesterrorists, pushes the boundaries of torture. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines â€Å"torture† as â€Å"the act of causing severe physical pain as a form of punishment or as a way to force someone to do or say something† (â€Å"Torture†). However, in Alicia Shepherd’s article, Harsh Interrogation Techniques or Torture?, she indicates there is â€Å"no clear consensus on what constitutes torture† (Shepard). Yet while many still classify the techniques use by the CIA as actions of torture, that isn’t the phrase that isRead MoreEconomic Benefits Of Maternity Leave1558 Words   |  7 Pagescom, â€Å"Many against waterboarding as an illegal practice,.† Lauren Carroll, January 16, 2017,â€Å"Waterboarding Didnt Work, Committee Report Finds.† Tom Vanden Brook, 10 Dec. 2014, Summary: Trump quote: â€Å"I would bring back waterboarding, and I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding,† Donald Trump believes that the US is not demonstrating its strength enough in the fight against ISIS. One of his suggested solutions as president is to revive waterboarding. Former presidentRead MoreThe Economic Benefits Of Paid Leave1616 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Many against waterboarding as an illegal practice,.† Lauren Carroll, January 16, 2017,â€Å"Waterboarding Didnt Work, Committee Report Finds.† Tom Vanden Brook, December 10, 2014 Summary: Trump quote: â€Å"I would bring back waterboarding, and I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding,† Donald Trump believes that the US is not demonstrating its strength enough in the fight against ISIS. One of his suggested solutions as president is to revive waterboarding. Former presidentRead MoreThe United States War On Terror1158 Words   |  5 Pagesforefront of the nation’s agenda. This emergent wave of conflict required a different strategy than the those of the past because of the unorthodox nature of the opponent. One of the major innovations fostered by the â€Å"War on Terror† was the expansion of torture. The dramatic rise in terrorism sparked the unethical advancement of interrogation techniques in order to more effectively acquire information. The emergence of the â€Å"War on Terror† required government officials acquire intelligence in a new way thus

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Women Of Algiers By Pablo Picasso - 974 Words

Pablo Picasso painted his version of â€Å"Women of Algiers† 120 years after Eugene Delacroix painted the original in 1834. Those 120 years were full of evolving paint styles, and it can definitely be seen when you look at the two paintings side by side. Although both paintings were painted in different times with different historical context, they still share some similarities, but also some differences. Delacroix painted â€Å"Women of Algiers† in 1834, two years after the French colonization of Algeria. Most people view his painting as accurate because he visited Algeria just two years previous (Ma). Delacroix went to Algeria in 1832 as part of a diplomatic mission for France. Because of this, some people believe that â€Å"Women of Algiers† was â€Å"propaganda for France’s imperialist ambition (Ma 9).† The painting was meant to show the women as oppressed and under control, the same thing that imperialistic France hoped to accomplish with the country they desired (Khannous). The painting itself was very much influenced by the oriental culture of North Africa, but was also warped by the European fantasy of North Africa. Oriental objects and color schemes can be seen throughout the painting; however, the painting’s presentation of its subjects are a product of European influence. The painting is supposed to depict a Harem, which to Europeans was viewed as a place where men kept their multiple concubines and wives; however, the European view of a Harem is very over-dramatic, and actuallyShow MoreRelatedWomen Of Algiers By Pablo Picasso898 Words   |  4 Pages Women of Algiers Women of Algiers (Picasso, P. 1955) is a cubist style painting by Pablo Picasso, depicting a brothel scene in which women are selling their bodies. Patched in vibrant colours and patterns the painting displays four women, with the main focus being the female on the left. Incidentally she is the only one that has a head, the rest are just breasts and legs. The style of the painting leaves these women most disturbingly chopped and sliced up, missing parts of their bodies but stillRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald877 Words   |  4 Pagesfeminist perspective, discussing the producers’ use of women in the works and feminist or anti-feminist ideas. This paper will first look at the novel The Great Gatsby (Fitzgerald, F, S, 1925), analysing Fitzgerald’s use of gender roles and feminist ideals. A product of its time, The Great Gatsby has female characters in secondary roles, but surprisingly doesn’t completely confine all of them to strict gender roles. The focus will mainly be on the women of the novel: Daisy Buchanan; Jordan Baker; andRead MoreComparison Between Eugene Delacroix And Pablo Picasso s Paintings1662 Words   |  7 PagesComparison between Eugene Delacroix and Pablo Picasso’s Paintings The painting by Delacroix completed in 1834 titled The Women of Algiers, revealed an enriching revelation of Algerian women who were depicted with their distinctive beauty and fashion sense. Delacroix went on a voyage to North Africa where he managed to observe the lifestyle of the people there which later motivated him to come up with the famous painting. It has been speculated that the final work represented an equilibrium betweenRead MorePablo Picasso3152 Words   |  13 PagesPablo Picasso A Brief Biography #9;Pablo Ruiz Y Picasso was the most famous artist of the 20th century. He was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain. Picasso showed great talent at an early age. He loved to paint pictures of city life and was fascinated by the circus. He also enjoyed painting pictures of the day-to-day life of poor people in his neighbourhood and was also very poor himself. His father, Jose Ruiz Blasco, was a Castilian art teacher in Malaga and his mother, Maria PicassoRead More Pablo Picasso Essay2997 Words   |  12 PagesPablo Picasso A Brief Biography Pablo Ruiz Y Picasso was the most famous artist of the 20th century. He was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain. Picasso showed great talent at an early age. He loved to paint pictures of city life and was fascinated by the circus. He also enjoyed painting pictures of the day-to-day life of poor people in his neighbourhood and was also very poor himself. His father, Jose Ruiz Blasco, was a Castilian art teacher in Malaga and his mother, Maria Picasso

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Clinical Psychology Implications Treatment

Question: Discuss about the Clinical Psychology for Implications Treatment. Answer: Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a clinical condition associated with symptoms of low self-esteem, loss of interest in activities, impaired concentration and feeling of restlessness. The morbidity of the disease is associated with adverse outcome like poor interpersonal relationship as well as suicidal thoughts. The DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of MDD depicts symptoms of anhedonia (loss of pleasures in rewarding things) should be every day till a minimum of two weeks (Henriques Davidson, 2000). Recent studies indicate that continuous periods of depressive symptoms impairs the brain areas related to positive emotions and hence anhedonia becomes a cardinal symptoms of depression (Der-Avakian Markou, 2012). The brain mechanisms underlying anhedonia is very elusive and it is necessary to study the contribution of the brain reward system in the symptoms of MDD. To analyze reward-based reinforcement learning in depression, many fMRI studies had been done to analyze brain activities in targets area and determine the extent to which brains reward system is influenced by the disease. fMRI studies investigating reward processing in depression revealed that depressed patients mainly shows reduced activations to rewards and they had reduce anticipatory response after a winning trail (Pizzagalli, 2014). Behavioral studies have also indicated low-reward sensitivity in depressed participants and this was confirmed by the reinforcement learning parameters in the task. The study was done in control groups and depressed groups and the reinforcement learning model was applied in patients behavioral data. The findings showed that MDD patients had lacked reward-based decision making skills and they faced difficulties in carrying out many actions. Hence, people with depressive disorder show varying response to action (Kunisato et al., 2012). A study by (Naranjo, Tremblay, Busto, 2001) indicates that alterations in the neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems lead to depression and dopamines and serotonins mostly play vital function in it. Tryptophan depression leads to de creased flow in certain regions of brain and lead to depressive symptoms due the activation of orbitifrontal cortex, septal region and amygdala. Hence there are neurobiological overlaps between MDD and brain reward system and anhedonic symptoms in depression is due impairment of the brain reward system. There are also indications that impairment in brain reward system might reduce reward related learning outcomes of patients with MDD. This might also affect and challenge the maintenance of MDD in diagnose person. In such case person behavior will be affected as they will not be able to modify behavior in terms of pay-off condition of rewards. This factor explains why depressed patients mainly experience anhedonia and why anhedonia is a potential trait marker of MDD (Forbes Dahl, 2012). The question now arises whether reduced learning might normalize with treatment and this is a new area of investigation to determine the impact of reduced reward learning due to depression. One study investigated the relation between reward learning and MDD after 8 weeks of treatment. The patients and control subjects had to complete reward task to determine how reward functions regulates behavior of participants. The comparison of reward responsiveness between control groups and depressed patients r evealed that MDD patient have reduced learning and this is even higher in patients with high level of anhedonia than those with low level of anhedonia. It led to persisting symptom of depression even after treatment (Vrieze et al., 2013). Hence, it indicates that reduced reward learning might significantly affects treatment goals and new approach is needed to eliminate persisting symptoms of anhedonia in patients. Anhedonia is the main focus of attention while defining treatment plan for patients with depression. It is the most vulnerable factors that might severely affect health condition of diagnosed person. The functional magnetic resonance imaging tests have indicated that there is difference in key nodes of brains reward system that affects anhedonia symptoms. Anhedonia is correlated with reduced nucleus accumbens (NAcc), reduced NAcc volume and increased resting delta current density. As NAcc reward response is inversely associated with resting delta activity, it is predicted that delta might have a role in the brains reward circuit activity (Wacker, Dillon, Pizzagalli, 2009). Further research in this area might help in elucidating the neural basis of anhedonia. On research study tried to review the neural bases that lead to anhedonia and it was found that deficits in hedonic capacity mainly lead to the conditions and this has impact on reward related processes in the brain particularly in ventral striatum, prefrontal cortical regions and different projections. This understanding might play a great role in addressing reward related deficits in patients with MDD (Der-Avakian Markou, 2012). Further extension to thought can be given by the idea that MDD is associated with poor neurobiological response to pleasant stimuli and psychotherapy has the potential to normalize this response. A study with MDD adults was done who completed fMRI scans and received behavioral activation therapy. The findings showed that psychotherapy lead to functional changes in structures that mediate award response. Hence, it can help to improve reward related functions of patients (Dichter et al., 2009). Diagnosis of MDD may lead to low striatal response and high medial prefrontal response to rewards. As there is change in the dopamine system and the reward functions due to aging, the altered reward functions is more prominent in depression (Forbes Dahl, 2012). The purpose of this research is to study response to reward-based reinforcement learning in depression and investigate the implications of altered reward functions on treatment development. The fMRI study will help in in vivo identification of brain regions involved in cognitive and motor processes in participants (Chau et al., 2004). It is expected that findings from this study will have great clinical implications by suggesting target areas for treatment of depressive patients. The fMRI study will help determine the specific brains which get affected by MDD and accurate clinical intervention will be given based on this results. Aim of the research: The main aim of the research is to conduct and fMRI study in healthy controls and depressed participants to analyze reward-based reinforcement learning in depression. Research objective The main objectives of the research are as follows: To determine the association between rewards and dopamine activities on health control and depressive individual through fMRI study. To analyze the concept of reward processing by means of reward-based enforcement learning in participants. To compare actions of health control and depressed subjects on a verbal memory task based on conditions on reward based reinforcements. To utilize results from the study to identify activation of different regions of brain and take adequate actions to modify behavior and treat depressed patients. Research question The research questions for the study are as follows: What is the difference between the brain reward systems of healthy controls and depressed patients? How reward processing differs in participants by means of reward-based reinforcement activities? How the action of control and MDD subjects differs based on monetary pay off of rewards? In what way findings of the results could be used to treat symptoms of depressive patients? Literature review: Tremblay and Mayberg (2005) have described the pathway called the brain reward system which plays a major in the mediation of reward behaviors and that of motivation. They have stated how the neurological pathway system that is involved is responsible for providing rewards which serve elicit approach and as well as consumatory behaviors that will be helpful in inducing subjective feelings based on pressure and also for positive emotional states. They also help to prevent extinction. While conducting research on it, it was suggested by them that there might be a neuroanatomical substrate which will be responsible for the feeling of anhedonia. Anhedonia takes place when an individual cannot experience pleasure as a rewarding attitude. To test this they used a compound called the destroamphetamine substrate in participants severely affected with the major depressive disorder. When tested it was seen that the compound was able to induce the release of dopamine form the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. This resulted in enhanced rewarding effect which indicated altered reward processing in MDD. They have thereby used the functional magnetic resonance imaging called the fMRI along with that of the positron emitting tomography in order to study the varieties of the human neuroanatomical substrates that remain in close association with the positive subjective experiences after the reinforcement of the drugs such as destroamphetamine and also nicotine. The technique of the fMRI is used because it provides a higher superior temporal and spatial resolution (Clark, Chamberlain Sahakian, 2009). It also helps in visualizing brain activity and also because it does not use radioactive tracers. These proved that dopamine related neuroanatomical substrates are intricately associated with altered rewarding processing in MDD (Der-Avakian Markou, 2012). A similar study was supported by Santesso et al. in the year 2008 which stated that the phasic modulation that take place in the dopamine neurons of the midbrain during the reinforcement learning is conveyed to the dACC which is often termed as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and alo in BG called the basal ganglion. They are mainly responsible for adaptive responding. The scientists used the electrophysiological studies of daCC function which mainly focuses on the probabilistic reward learning in healthy subjects. The task that they used, for the study, mainly corporated the integration of reinforcement history over time. When comparisons were made between the learners and the non learners, learners showed more positive feedback related negativity but greater dACC activation when they received reward for the proper identification of the stimulus. The patients were allowed to take part in a monetary incentive delay (MID) task that was administered during the Functional resonance imaging. When comparisons were made again, the learners showed stronger BG response in the reward for the MID task. All these prove that there is a higher possibility that learners who were under the probabilistic reinforcement task are characterized by stronger responses from dACC and BG in case of rewarding outcomes. These suggested that dACC indeed played a very important role in probabilistic reward learning in humans. The above study was supported in the article of the scientists namely Di Martino et al. in the year 2008 which showed that indeed basal ganglion has a major role in clinical disorders of mental health and has been proved by the fMRI. Basal ganglia take part in a number of activities like motivational, cognitive motor and emotional processes and thereby plays a very crucial role in the varieties of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Foti and Hajkack, 2009). Researchers here also used the functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment for conducting a comprehensive functional connectivity analysis of the circuitry system of the basal ganglia. Voxelwise regression analysis has shown to provide the proof of the hypothesized cognitive motor and affective divisions mainly among the striatal subdivisions. It also provided a solid evidence of the functional organization consistence with the parallel and the integrative loop models. This process also helped them to identify subtle dist inction in the striatal sub regions. They have shown that the inferior ventral striatum remains associated with the medial portions of the orbitofrontal cortex. They researched that superior striatal seed remains associated with medial and lateral portions. These had been a big help to the science world for the treatment of the disorders. This ability found to map the multiple distinct striatal circuits within a particular study in humans is the main strength of the fMRI technique. This approach therefore has been found to be extremely helpful for these disorders of the mental health that suffer from altered structure and function of the basal ganglia (Robinson et al., 2012). Also other studies conducted by Henriques and Davidson (2000) have revealed that the left anterior hypoactivation remains present in the brain of the expressed individuals. Thos in turn have found to be the main result of the decrease in the approach related motivation and behavior in the depressed individual. For this the researchers conducted a trial between the depressed participants meeting the DSM IV criteria for major depression and another group of non depressed participants. The control group was successful in maintaining the reinforcement learning technique as they changed their pattern of responses in both the rewards and the punishment situations in relation to their neutral conditions so that they could have maximized their earning. However such a response was not shown by the depressed participants who were in the depressed categories. The findings from this study also reported of the decreased responsiveness to the reward in case of the depressed participants. Through t horough research they have been able to find out that the left prefrontal hypoactivation which is mainly found in cases of depression reflects a deficit in the approach related behavior. Researcher Niv in the year 2009 had published his research which had shown that decision making processes that are adopted by different animals and also human beings usually follow a neural framework. It can be connected with specific learning pathways that have links to neural substrates having specific roles for each. These pathways are often found to link with the dopaminergic neurons signals in the mammalian brains and this is well observed from the various human brain imaging procedures (Chau, Roth Green, 2004). He had clearly stated that reinforcement learning mainly helps in evaluating the activity of the decision making process and to earn the best reward from it. There are many cases where the mentally ill patient feels incomplete even when receiving rewards which might not be the best but can be pleasurable. Evidences have been given by Whitton, Treadway and Pizzagalli in the year 2015 that in many cases of disorders like bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and ot hers, reward processing abnormalities take place when the various parts of the neural processes are altered. They have proved this through experiments where they have dissected the different subcomponents of the reward processing components. They have studied these effects on the different neurobiological pathways and thereby investigated their dysregulation in different disorders of mental health patients. They have even suggested that this type of experiments holds a great strength in future. From these statements one can relate how reinforcement learning pathway may affect the reward based decision making and deliver better results. Dayan and Niv (2008) have stated that neural reinforcement learning technique is a dynamic field that has not refined confined to its conventional approach of narrow confines of the trial and error reward learning method. It had now been exposed in a near overwhelming rate where they have been successful in connecting the substantial theoretically motivated and the informative animal studies with that of the human neuroimaging results. A new set of data have been also achieved by them like cyclic volta-metric measurements of the phasic dopamine concentrations, results on serotonin kevel, and many others. They have also observed the nascent t efforts to activate DA cells in vivo using the new types of optogenic methods like the targeted channel rhodopsin which is believed to help the reinforcement model to give more success in the future. Ethical considerations The research will be conducted on depressed participants and hence all the codes of ethics mentioned in the Australian Psychological Society will be followed to minimize any risk to participants. Before sample recruitment, all participants will be informed about the purpose of research and the detailed procedure of research. They will be ensured that their confidentiality will be protected and the identity of the participants will not be revealed at all circumstances (Ritchie et al., 2013).Hence, all participants will be selected after taking informed consent from them regarding the research. As the research will also include patients with MDD, they will be diagnostically tested before the research to assess health risk or suicide related intentions in participants. Ethical issues related to the publication of the research findings will also be looked after and researcher will ensure that no confidentiality issue arises (Clarke Cossette, 2016). As this research aims to modify the stimulate human brain through reward based activities, any devastating impact of brain related conditions will assessed before the research (Cabrera et al., 2014). The neuroethics related to fMRI will also be considered by addressing all the ethical and legal considerations in neuroscience clinical practice. The challenges may arise in fMRI techniques and this problem will be looked after by experts groups who have better understanding about the neural mechanism of conscience, emotion and social behavior in participants. It will also help to address reporting biasness in the fMRI results (David et al., 2013). Treatment of results It is predicted that the findings of the results will give insight into the range of abnormalities in brain areas of participants and the effect of the structural impairment on reward based learning in participants. It will give idea whether the research finding has proved the hypothesis or conflicting results have been found. If the result is consistent with the research hypothesis, it is intended further extend the research to study the brain structure abnormalities on response rate of participants. Future research in this area could help to determine the sensitivity to reward functions of depressed patients and thinks of ways to treat their symptoms. It will give idea regarding a more efficacious treatment and interventions strategies for MDD patients. The research finding will help to answer several questions related to the pathophysiology of depression and confirm whether behavioral activation treatment will benefit patients depression or not. It also holds promise for studying basal ganglia dysfunction in MDD patients (Di Martino et al., 2008). Good time planning As the data collected after the experiment will be evaluated only after fMRI studies, some delay might also occur in the process. Furthermore the analysis of the brain structure will take time, hence it is planned to overcome this delay by engaging expert neurologist in the research. (Robinson et al., 2012). Behavioral and neuropsychological research also indicates delayed actions occur due to different neural substrates and it will lead to delay in visual or action related response. Based on these issues, the time required for completion of the research process will be determined accordingly (Singhal et al., 2013). Reference Cabrera, L. Y., Evans, E. L., Hamilton, R. H. (2014). Ethics of the electrified mind: defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care.Brain topography,27(1), 33-45. Chau, D. T., Roth, R. M., Green, A. I. (2004). The neural circuitry of reward and its relevance to psychiatric disorders.Current psychiatry reports,6(5), 391-399. Clark, L., Chamberlain, S. R., Sahakian, B. J. (2009). Neurocognitive mechanisms in depression: implications for treatment.Annual review of neuroscience,32, 57-74. Clarke, S. P., Cossette, S. (2016). Secondary analysis: Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations.Canadian Journal of Nursing Research Archive,32(3). David, S. P., Ware, J. J., Chu, I. M., Loftus, P. D., Fusar-Poli, P., Radua, J., ... Ioannidis, J. P. (2013). Potential reporting bias in fMRI studies of the brain.PloS one,8(7), e70104. Dayan, P., Niv, Y. (2008). Reinforcement learning: the good, the bad and the ugly.Current opinion in neurobiology,18(2), 185-196. Der-Avakian, A., Markou, A. (2012). The neurobiology of anhedonia and other reward-related deficits.Trends in neurosciences,35(1), 68-77. Di Martino, A., Scheres, A., Margulies, D. S., Kelly, A. M. C., Uddin, L. Q., Shehzad, Z., ... Milham, M. P. (2008). Functional connectivity of human striatum: a resting state FMRI study.Cerebral cortex,18(12), 2735-2747. Dichter, G. S., Felder, J. N., Petty, C., Bizzell, J., Ernst, M., Smoski, M. J. (2009). The effects of psychotherapy on neural responses to rewards in major depression.Biological psychiatry,66(9), 886-897. Forbes, E. E., Dahl, R. E. (2012). Research review: altered reward function in adolescent depression: what, when and how?.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,53(1), 3-15. Foti, D., Hajcak, G. (2009). Depression and reduced sensitivity to non-rewards versus rewards: Evidence from event-related potentials.Biological psychology,81(1), 1-8. Henriques, J. B., Davidson, R. J. (2000). Decreased responsiveness to reward in depression.Cognition Emotion,14(5), 711-724. Kunisato, Y., Okamoto, Y., Ueda, K., Onoda, K., Okada, G., Yoshimura, S., ... Yamawaki, S. (2012). Effects of depression on reward-based decision making and variability of action in probabilistic learning.Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry,43(4), 1088-1094. Naranjo, C. A., Tremblay, L. K., Busto, U. E. (2001). The role of the brain reward system in depression.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry,25(4), 781-823. Niv, Y. (2009). Reinforcement learning in the brain.Journal of Mathematical Psychology,53(3), 139-154. Palminteri, S., Justo, D., Jauffret, C., Pavlicek, B., Dauta, A., Delmaire, C., ... Pessiglione, M. (2012). Critical roles for anterior insula and dorsal striatum in punishment-based avoidance learning.Neuron,76(5), 998-1009. Pizzagalli, D. A. (2014). Depression, stress, and anhedonia: toward a synthesis and integrated model.Annual review of clinical psychology,10, 393-423. Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., Ormston, R. (Eds.). (2013).Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. Sage. Robinson, O. J., Cools, R., Carlisi, C. O., Sahakian, B. J., Drevets, W. C. (2012). Ventral striatum response during reward and punishment reversal learning in unmedicated major depressive disorder.American Journal of Psychiatry,169(2), 152-159. Santesso, D. L., Dillon, D. G., Birk, J. L., Holmes, A. J., Goetz, E., Bogdan, R., Pizzagalli, D. A. (2008). Individual differences in reinforcement learning: behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging correlates.Neuroimage,42(2), 807-816. Singhal, A., Monaco, S., Kaufman, L. D., Culham, J. C. (2013). Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.PLoS One,8(9), e73629. Treadway, M. T., Zald, D. H. (2011). Reconsidering anhedonia in depression: lessons from translational neuroscience.Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews,35(3), 537-555. Tremblay, L. K., Naranjo, C. A., Graham, S. J., Herrmann, N., Mayberg, H. S., Hevenor, S., Busto, U. E. (2005). Functional neuroanatomical substrates of altered reward processing in major depressive disorder revealed by a dopaminergic probe.Archives of general psychiatry,62(11), 1228-1236. Vrieze, E., Pizzagalli, D. A., Demyttenaere, K., Hompes, T., Sienaert, P., de Boer, P., ... Claes, S. (2013). Reduced reward learning predicts outcome in major depressive disorder.Biological psychiatry,73(7), 639-645. Wacker, J., Dillon, D. G., Pizzagalli, D. A. (2009). The role of the nucleus accumbens and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in anhedonia: integration of resting EEG, fMRI, and volumetric techniques.Neuroimage,46(1), 327-337. Whitton, A. E., Treadway, M. T., Pizzagalli, D. A. (2015). Reward processing dysfunction in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.Current opinion in psychiatry,28(1), 7.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

The NSA program

The Controversy Surrounding NSA Program Terrorism is a rising concern that is not only bothering first world countries but also third world countries as well. Terrorist activities have spread so much in the last two decades that they now threaten countries that were previously considered immune, such countries as Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The NSA program specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government of the United States has taken this concern and in the effort to contain terrorism formed the National Security Agency (NSA) in 1952. The program targeted calling behavior of Americans both within and without USA who â€Å"had suspected links to terrorist activities† (Fisher 199). Its would not have bee successful had it incorporated the help of American Telephone companies such as ATT while those who refused cooperation collapsed (Levy et al 5; Fisher 198). (NSA c ould not operate legally without the necessary legal requirements thus the enactment of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, FISA in 1978 (Fisher 185). The purpose of this paper is to explore how the controversy surrounding the NSA program since its enactment especially during the reign of President George bush Yale University School of Law Symposium explains that FISA initial intension was to ensure that all intelligence wiretaps were done for â€Å"a probable reason† (404). FISA statute required the establishment of FISA courts to grant permission for such wiretap. However, the New York Times revealed a gross violation of this statute by the Bush administration, which eavesdropped on thousands of telephone conversations secretly, and without permission from FISA courts (Lichtblau para 1; Yale University School of Law Symposium 404). Supporters of this move argue that FISA statutes were meant for times of peace thus did not cater for the current security threats. This beli ef lead to The President lifting some of the â€Å"legal restrictions† in the act that did not allowed warrant less electronic surveillance (Risen and Eric para 14).Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Proponents continue to argue that this program not only needed implementation in full but also total privacy. Exposing classified information such as documents detailing war on terror to the public is equal to â€Å"advertising American war on terror† (Yale University School of Law Symposium 405). Furthermore collecting information on ones war enemies is an age-old practice and therefore not abnormal in the war against terrorism. This makes the â€Å"Terrorist Surveillance Program† intended to collect terrorist information thousands of citizen inside and outside USA without FISA courts approval necessary as it was also in line with the US constitution (406). F ISA statute had several loopholes especially regarding executive authority. It did not address the question of the extent of presidential powers in exercising official authority. It also does not answer the question whether the president has discretionary powers when national security is at stake and lastly legal experts question its constitutionality if in its provision too restrict executive power, limits the power of the president to act in protecting and securing Americans in dire times (Centre for Law and Security 3). However, several people have opposed this program vehemently. Opponents state that it amounted to abuse of the law by the Bush administration. They claim that unwarranted wire taps are illegal for whatever reason and that bypassing the FISA policies is unconstitutional in two ways: it amounts to making the FISA statute optional, and it is also a grave abuse of executive authority by the president (Savage and Risen para 11). Several US judges have also ruled unwarr anted eavesdropping illegal as it intrudes into peoples private phone calls without any good reason. The knowledge that phone calls could be tapped unwarrantedly makes Americans paranoid and afraid of free phone speech, which curtails freedom of speech (Holding para 4, 5). The initial intention of this program was to gain information that would help in the war against terrorism. However, the changing nature of the terrorism coupled with creative manipulation of the law has lead to what many calls abuse of the executive authority. In the meantime, controversy ranges on about the legality and necessity of the program.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The NSA program specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Center for Law and Security. â€Å"The NSA Wiretapping Program.† For The Record. 2007. Web. Fisher, Louis. â€Å"National Security Surveillance: Unchecked or Limited Presidential Power,† in Carter, Contemporary Cases in U.S. Foreign Policy, 2011. Print. Holding, Reynolds â€Å"Why the Wiretapping Ruling Is Vulnerable† Time. 2006. Web. Levy, David, Leong, Joy, Bus, Lawrence Plunkett, Michael. â€Å"Benefits- Cost Regulation of Negotiated Service Agreements.† n.d. Web. Lichtblau, Eric. â€Å"Senate Approves Bill to Broaden Wiretap Powers.† New York  Times. July 10, 2008. Web. Risen, James and Lichtblau, Eric. â€Å"Bush Secretly Lifted Some Limits on Spying in U.S. After 9/11, Officials Say.† New York Times. December 15, 2005. Web. Savage, Charlie and Risen, James. â€Å"Federal Judge Finds N.S.A. Wiretaps Were Illegal.† New York Times. March 31, 2010.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yale University School of Law Symposium, â€Å"Warrant less Wiretaps,† in A Loch Johnson and James Wirtz, ed., Intelligence and National Security New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print. This research paper on The NSA program was written and submitted by user Danica Rosario to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Free Essays on The Things They Carried By Tim Obrien

Tough Love in â€Å"The Things They Carried,† by Tim O’Brien In Tim O’Briens â€Å"The Things They Carried,† O’Brien describes the blind obsession of Lieutenant Jimmy Cross for a young girl named Martha, a junior at Mount Sebastian College in New Jersey. Burdened by the physical and psychological aspects of the Vietnam War, Cross often finds himself daydreaming and distracted by thoughts about her. Out one day on another one of their seemingly meaningless missions, Cross and his men are investigating tunnels near the Village of Than Khe. As a result of Cross’s negligence, Private Ted Lavender gets shot in the head. Consequently, Cross destroys all of Martha’s letters and photos because he is angry with his own carelessness, and he feels so burdened with the blame of Lavenders death. Cross realizes that he spends more time thinking about Martha than thinking about the well being of his men. Cross realizes that it is not his job to be loved. It is his job to lead. Cross makes the decision to become less emotional and to enforce discipline and respect among his soldiers. In many ways the death of Ted Lavender makes cross a better soldier; it helps him prioritize what his duties are, to keep himself and his men alive. He now distances himself from the other soldiers. â€Å"They would get their shit together and keep it together†(718). All the letters and pictures of Martha are gone, but not from his memory; he can still see her face, and he can still see her in her white gym shorts. Cross is not through with love, he just has to refocus his emotions from daydreams of Martha to the will to survive. Cross knows that if he doesn’t change that he and his men will will end up dead. He knows what he has to do as a commanding officer. He has to get rid of the daydreams and the fantasies of a love that he knows is fictional. The simple facts are that he has to s... Free Essays on The Things They Carried By Tim O'brien Free Essays on The Things They Carried By Tim O'brien Tough Love in â€Å"The Things They Carried,† by Tim O’Brien In Tim O’Briens â€Å"The Things They Carried,† O’Brien describes the blind obsession of Lieutenant Jimmy Cross for a young girl named Martha, a junior at Mount Sebastian College in New Jersey. Burdened by the physical and psychological aspects of the Vietnam War, Cross often finds himself daydreaming and distracted by thoughts about her. Out one day on another one of their seemingly meaningless missions, Cross and his men are investigating tunnels near the Village of Than Khe. As a result of Cross’s negligence, Private Ted Lavender gets shot in the head. Consequently, Cross destroys all of Martha’s letters and photos because he is angry with his own carelessness, and he feels so burdened with the blame of Lavenders death. Cross realizes that he spends more time thinking about Martha than thinking about the well being of his men. Cross realizes that it is not his job to be loved. It is his job to lead. Cross makes the decision to become less emotional and to enforce discipline and respect among his soldiers. In many ways the death of Ted Lavender makes cross a better soldier; it helps him prioritize what his duties are, to keep himself and his men alive. He now distances himself from the other soldiers. â€Å"They would get their shit together and keep it together†(718). All the letters and pictures of Martha are gone, but not from his memory; he can still see her face, and he can still see her in her white gym shorts. Cross is not through with love, he just has to refocus his emotions from daydreams of Martha to the will to survive. Cross knows that if he doesn’t change that he and his men will will end up dead. He knows what he has to do as a commanding officer. He has to get rid of the daydreams and the fantasies of a love that he knows is fictional. The simple facts are that he has to s...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 20

Discussion - Essay Example icle, â€Å"Effective Communication-That is just what I mean† by Santosh Sachdeva, the author has emphasized on the importance of effective communication. The author has also highlighted the significance of accurate body language and tone while communicating with the other person. Body language, voice and words play are the most essential elements of an effective communication. A person can misunderstand or misinterpret the meaning of the entire message; if any element of an effective communication is absent from the message. The author further adds that feed back or the response signifies that the message has been understood by the receiver. However, we cannot ignore the issues that generally emerge during any communication either it is done verbally or nonverbally. People often ignore what other person is saying. They focus more on their response rather paying attention to the words of other person. People make errors in communication either they are bounded by their ego or they feel superiority complex over the other one which damages the effectiveness. Perception is another issue which causes damage to effective communication. People often ignore the message of a person who is low in status or less privileged. On the other hand, people pay more attention to the words and meanings of the person who is more sound and stable than the other groups. Sometimes people ignore the message conveyed to them in state of stress. People believe what they see, they acquire from their surroundings and what is being fed in their minds rather they communicate and talk with other groups to justify the authenticity of the information. To avoid issues in communication, it is very important to listen actively to the words of the speaker and to give a proper feedback to the person in order to assure him that you have understood the message and the